PARTS OF THE FRAGRANCE
A fragrance is divided into 3 distinct parts: the top note, the middle note and the base note. Eachof these usually has an assortment of ingredients.
TOP NOTES are the most volatile fragrance ingredients. The top notes give the fragrance its initial burst, and can provide impact in a finished product. Top notes are the first to evaporate, leaving the middle notes of the fragrance to be explored. Traditional top notes include citrus oilsand light aromatic chemicals such as esters.
MIDDLE NOTES, or the heart of the fragrance, represent the truest character of the scent. These ingredients form the “fragrance signature”, and are evident throughout most of the life of the fragrance. Typical middle notes include floral, spice and fruit tones.
BASE NOTES are the longest lasting portion of the fragrance. These ingredients support the fragrance and give it depth. Base notes remain long after the top and middle notes have evaporated. Commonly used materials for base notes are musk, vanilla, resins and woods.
BALSAMIC notes are warm and / or sweet, and can frequently be found in the resinous group of materials. Balsamic notes support a fragrance from within, offering richness and providing a natural sensation. Base notes are sometimes composed of several balsamic materials.
• EXAMPLES OF BALSAMIC MATERIALS:
CAMPHORACEOUS notes create a cooling sensation, and can be described as fresh. Natural essential oils in the herbaceous family often exhibit camphoraceous tones, with naturally occurring camphor oil producing this effect. On some occasions camphoraceous tones can produce a medicinal effect.
• EXAMPLES OF CAMPHORACEOUS MATERIALS:
• Rosemary oil
• Eucalyptus oil
• Camphor powder
CITRUS tones are easily identified due to the association with food and beverages. Citrus essential oils are produced from the citrus fruit peel, and a fresh, slightly acidic note is displayed. Citrus tones are usually top notes, where they produce a fresh, juicy, effervescent effect.
• EXAMPLES OF CITRUS MATERIALS:
• Lemon oil
• Grapefruit oil
• Bergamot oil
FLORAL is the largest generic fragrance category. Within the floral category there are many sun-categories ( such as aldehydic –floral or green – floral). Flowery notes such as rose , gardenia or jasmine can be used alone or in combination with one another to produce a “floral bouquet”. Since some flowers have little or no scent, creative floral accords are often produced to fulfill the need for scents such as daisy or orchid. Floral tones will generally be found at the heart of the fragrance.
• EXAMPLES OF FLORAL NOTES:
• Floral bouquet
FRUIT, like the citrus accords, these notes can be easily identified due to their similarity to real fruit aromas. Sweet / sour tones found in apple, peach, strawberry and banana are replicated for use in perfumery. These fruit compounds are generally produced from synthetic materials, although touches of natural materials such as citrus may be added for a juicy effect. Fruit notes will be found in the top note or middle note of a scent, but exceptions exist in fruit scents such as peach which have creamy and sweet undertones.
• EXAMPLES OF FRUIT NOTES:
The GREEN category is very significant in today’s market. Market positioning of products based on “natural” themes has created a demand for fragrances that smell like plants, leaves and grasses. Green notes provide bright, strong, natural smelling accents for all types of fragrances. Green notes can be top notes or middle notes, and they traditionally exhibit good stability in a wide variety of products.
• EXAMPLES OF GREEN NOTES:
MARINE notes add fresh, bright, watery and / or algae like accents to fragrance blends. They are rarely used alone due to theirelusive quality, yet combined with florals, woods, or fruit types they create sparkle and add a natural sensation. Marine notes are often found accenting the top note of a scent and are reminiscent of the smell of sea breezes.
• EXAMPLES OF MARINE NOTES:
• Sea spray
• Ocean breeze
The MINT family is characterized by its pierce cooling effect. Mint provides an invigorating effect and fresh lift for all fragrance types. It has become more important as a single note in today’s products that feature natural positioning. Mint accents the top note of a fragrance.
• EXAMPLES OF MINT INGREDIENTS:
SPICE notes are familiar due to their use in cooking and baking. They create warm or pungent sensations, and are used in almost all fragrance types. Most spice notes are derived from nature, and they can be found accenting the middle notes of a fragrance or used alone.
• EXAMPLES OF SPICE INGREDIENTS:
SWEET notes are important base notes for most fragrance blends. Recalling familiar sensations found in vanilla, sugar, honey and syrup, sweet notes are long lasting and comforting. Gourmand type scents have created a new demand for sweet notes in perfumery, where they provide edible sensations that captivate the senses.
• EXAMPLES OF SWEET NOTES:
WOODS are important building blocks for fragrance. Woody notes enhance and enrich the base notes of most fragrances. They provide warmth, naturalness and long lasting richness. Most woody notes are derived from nature, where essential oils are distilled from fresh cut wood, tree bark or roots of a tree. In today’s market we find wood blends being used frequently in candles, particularly at the prestige level of distribution.
• EXAMPLES OF WOOD INGREDIENTS:
• Cedar wood
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